The 2019 election of Zuzana Čaputová as the first female president of the Slovak Republic brought increased visibility to the country, especially in the realm of foreign policy. While there is still room for greater participation, a growing number of women in Slovakia now occupy senior positions in influencing, planning, and conducting Slovakia’s foreign relations. In fact, earlier this year the Slovak foreign ministry held a week-long series of events recognizing and celebrating the contributions that women now make in diplomacy and international cooperation.
On May 7, 2021 Friends of Slovakia (FOS) convened a panel of three Slovak foreign-policy leaders to discuss their experiences and impact as policy makers and role models, and to share their perspectives on contemporary issues. Martina Hrvolová, director of Friends of Slovakia and a nonresident fellow at the German Marshall Fund, moderated the session, part of the FOS webinar series.
Lucia Kišš, then-director of the Slovak Agency for International Development Cooperation, became passionate about international development while living and studying abroad, but her passion brought her back home to Slovakia. Her work at the agency involved providing humanitarian and economic assistance in Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East in ways that also advanced diversity and greater opportunities for women. (Since the webinar Ms. Kišš assumed a new position as director general of economic and development cooperation at the Slovak foreign ministry.)
Jana Kobzová, foreign-policy advisor, Office of the President of the Slovak Republic, described how her interest in democracy building and foreign policy developed at a time when Slovakia was not making decisions for itself. She asserted that domestic challenges and foreign policy are interlinked, adding that President Čaputová has consistently pursued a foreign policy based on the values of democracy, rule of law, political pluralism, media freedom, and a market economy. It is important not to compromise on these values when dealing with partners that might not make or live up to similar commitments, Ms. Kobzová noted.
Katarína Klingová, senior research fellow at GLOBSEC, a Bratislava-based think tank, presented a new study of gender equality and female participation in Central Europe (available here: https://www.globsec.org/publications/ceeher-report-absent-voices-missing-female-perspective-in-cee/). Ms. Klingová encouraged the use of existing rosters and databases, such as a newly launched www.ceeher.org, to identify and empower female Central and East European experts in international relations, foreign and security policy, business, economics, technology, and sustainability. Particular attention should be paid to the role identity plays in society, Ms. Klingová said, as this constitutes a reference point for people to address issues that concern their development. The next step is to develop policy recommendations that reduce or eliminate inequalities and create a more inclusive environment in which female voices may be heard, she concluded.
A delegation of Friends of Slovakia (FOS) board members led by chairman Scott N. Thayer travelled to Cedar Rapids, Iowa to participate in events celebrating the 25th anniversary of the building dedication of the National Czech and Slovak Museum and Library (NCSML). In addition to Mr. Thayer the FOS visitors included Kenneth J. Bombara, vice chairman, and board members Martina Hrvolová, Peter Muzila, and Thomas W. Skladony.
Dr. Cecilia Rokusek, president and CEO of the NCSML, welcomed the Washington visitors, saying, “I am thrilled that so many of my fellow FOS board members are with us for this very special weekend, and I especially grateful that Ambassador Radovan Javorčík made time in his busy schedule to join us here in Cedar Rapids.”
The original dedication took place on October 21, 1995 with the participation of Bill Clinton, U.S. president; Václav Havel, president of the Czech Republic; and Michal Kováč, president of the Slovak Republic. That historic visit of three sitting presidents to Cedar Rapids drew an estimated outdoor crowd of 10,000, according to news accounts at the time.
The official program began on Friday night, September 17 with BrewNost, an outdoor food-and-drink festival featuring beer, wine, and spirits from Slovakia and the Czech Republic, Germany, and England, as well as numerous offerings from the Iowa craft brewing community.
Events on Saturday, September 18 included the opening of an exhibition of Slovak and Moravian headdresses curated by Helene Cincebeaux, the screening of a film depicting one woman’s attempt to uncover her Slovak heritage and identity, a discussion of the current visual art scene in Slovakia, and the premiere of a piano work by young composer Jacob Berenek written especially for the NCSML. Dr. Rokusek and a large group of VIP guests also performed a ceremonial ribbon cutting to open a major new NCSML exhibition entitled “Treasures of Slovakia,” featuring priceless artifacts from the collections of the Slovak National Museum in Bratislava that had never before left the country.
Capping the busy day on Saturday was a well-attended gala dinner that included congratulatory video messages from Bill Clinton, former U.S. president; Madeleine K. Albright, former U.S. secretary of state; Ivan Korčok, foreign minister of the Slovak Republic; Bořek Lizec, ambassador of the Czech Republic to Canada; Vít Koziak, ambassador of the Slovak Republic to Canada, among others. Delivering in-person remarks were Slovak Ambassador Radovan Javorčík, Czech Ambassador Hynek Kmoníček, U.S. Senator Charles Grassley (Iowa), and local dignitaries.
Several of the Washington visitors also made a brief visit to nearby Iowa City, where they toured the campus of the University of Iowa and attended a tailgate party before the Big-10 Iowa-Kent State football matchup on September 18. “We have nothing like this at all in our colleges in Slovakia,” Martina Hrvolová told Bruce Teague, mayor of Iowa City, at the Grateful Garage Tailgate across the street from Iowa’s 69,250-seat Kinnick Stadium. “This is an absolutely amazing experience for a Slovak like me and I am so glad I got to see this!”
Ivan Korčok, recently the Slovak Ambassador to the U.S., has been appointed Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic in the cabinet of the new Slovak government led by Prime Minister Igor Matovič. The February 29 parliamentary elections saw the rise of Matovič’s OLaNO party, which was able to form a new governing coalition with three other parties. In the course of selecting positions in the cabinet, the SAS party headed by Richard Sulík, chose Amb. Korčok as Foreign Minister, even though he is not a member of SAS. He will serve as an independent member of the cabinet. As the new Slovak government was forming in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, Minister Korčok had to quarantine for two weeks in Bratislava before he could begin his appointment. Korčok’s selection as Foreign Minister was hailed by many in Slovakia, the EU, and the West generally, as he represents a strong pro-EU, pro-NATO and Trans-Atlantic perspective, which is consistent with the manifesto of the new governing coalition.
Minister Korčok has had a highly distinguished diplomatic career. Prior to serving as Slovak Ambassador in Washington since 2018, his positions included serving from August 2015 as State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. He served as the Government Plenipotentiary for the Slovak Presidency in the Council of the EU between May and December 2016 and represented the Council as Minister Délégué before the European Parliament. He also served in Brussels between 2009-2015 as Permanent Representative of the Slovak Republic to the EU, and as Slovak Ambassador to Germany from 2005-2009. Minister Korčok began his career in 1992 at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he held a number of senior positions, including Director of the Department for Policy Planning and Analysis (1997-1998), Director General for International Organizations and Security Policy (2001-2002), and State Secretary (2002-2005). In 2003, he served as the Head of Delegation of the Slovak Republic on Accession Talks to NATO and Member of the European Convention in Brussels.
During his relatively brief tenure in Washington, Amb. Korčok was a dynamic leader on many levels. He not only represented Slovakia to the U.S. Government and the Congress, but was active with the broader foreign policy community, the Slovak American and émigré communities, and in organizing important cultural programs, such as the memorable “Slovaks at Carnegie Hall” concert event in New York City in January. Friends of Slovakia extends its congratulations and sincere best wishes to Minister Korčok as he continues his service and mission advancing the interests of Slovakia and Slovaks to the world community.
The results of the recent Slovak parliamentary election and the prospects for Igor Matovic’s new government were examined in an April 28 webinar co-sponsored by FOS and the German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF), “Slovakia: New Government, New Challenges.” The panel was moderated by Jonathan Katz, Senior Fellow with GMF, and hosted by Scott Thayer, Chairman of FOS.
Dr. Kevin Deegan-Krause of Wayne State University in Detroit, one of the foremost observers of Slovak politics, opened the webinar with an analysis putting the February 29 election results in the context of previous elections in independent Slovakia. The results pose challenges in assessing the direction of Slovak politics going forward, as it is not easy to characterize the new governing coalition on any kind of traditional left-right political spectrum. Matovič’s party had previously been in parliament as more of a collection of independent individuals who did not typically operate as an ideologically clear, unified party, as is indicated by its name: OLANO – Ordinary People and Independent Personalities. OLANO has three other coalition partners: Sme Rodina (We Are Family) is a socially conservative and euro-skeptic party; SAS (Freedom & Solidarity) is an economically liberal (i.e. free market) party; and Za Ľudí (For the People), is a moderately conservative party.
The election also saw the outgoing ruling party, Smer or Nový Smer (New Direction), come in second at 18% – a large drop in support – and the extreme right/populist Kotlebists – People’s Party Our Slovakia garner 8%, for the second election in a row.
Deegan-Krause noted the continuing Slovak trend of the proliferation of small parties, as well as the decline of most traditional parties, most of which were left out of parliament. Over one-third of the popular vote went to parties that did not enter parliament. This had the effect of increasing the power, in terms of the percentage of seats garnered, of those parties entering parliament: the governing coalition has a constitutional majority with 95 seats. He also noted that of the parties in the new coalition, none have been in existence for more than 10 years, and each has had only one leader/founder during their existence.
Dr. Grigorij Mesežnikov, President, Institute for Public Affairs, Bratislava, noted the dramatic changes in the political landscape. Prime Minister Matovič is now the surprising dominant force in Slovak politics, but likely not (yet) as dominant as was Fico and his previous ruling party, Smer. While the Hungarian parties, Christian Democrats, and others have failed to enter parliament, the ‘neo-fascist’ Kotleba party has effectively consolidated a substantial position in parliament during the past two elections. He noted that Matovič’s OLANO was dominant across almost all demographic and social groups, and it appears that the major factor was the Slovak public’s desire to fight corruption, with 70% of the electorate saying this was an important factor in their vote. Mesežnikov noted that the four-party coalition will have challenges due to various ideological orientations, but it appears that the coalition supports democratic values, a market economy, and importantly, are clearly pro-EU and pro-NATO.
Mesežnikov also discussed the Slovak response to the novel coronavirus COVID-19. Slovakia was among the most pro-active countries in Europe in responding with measures to limit the disease’s spread, and as a result has had a low number of cases and deaths. The election and turnover in government occurred in the midst of the pandemic; both the outgoing and incoming parties worked well together in handling the transition and managing the pandemic, thus earning favorable poll numbers. Curiously however, Mesežnikov noted, that once the Matovič government was fully in charge, their poll numbers for managing the pandemic inexplicably dropped. He further noted that the new government should be more solidly pro-EU on some issues, in contrast with the sometimes ambivalent responses of the prior Slovak government, as well as those of regional V-4 partners Hungary and Poland.
Martina Hrvolova, Program Officer for Europe and Eurasia, Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) focused on aspects of the economy and the economic response to the coronavirus. She stated that the new government must be focused on corruption, particularly given the current crisis situation. The private sector will play an important role in generating economic recovery, but this may be affected somewhat by the deterioration of the Slovak business environment, as reflected in ratings since 2018 comparing Slovakia with the EU and the world generally. The new government seems to be aware of this problem, as it has appointed several prominent independent economists to an advisory committee to help foster recovery. It will also be important for the new government to address the ‘digital transformation’ of both the business and government sectors with investments in infrastructure, but also with a key focus on issues of data privacy. Ms. Hrvolova commented that during the response to the coronavirus, the Slovak population showed a much more favorable response to the help provided by China, compared with the response of the EU and others. However, this view seems to be reversing somewhat, as the EU response on both health and economic assistance is improving.
Pavol Demeš, Senior Non-Resident Fellow, German Marshall Fund of the United States, commented on both domestic and foreign policy issues in Slovakia. He noted that in 2019, the 30th anniversary of the Velvet Revolution was commemorated. Since 2019, Slovakia elected its first female president and now has elected Igor Matovič and a new coalition government. He feels the motivating factor behind these political events was the February 2018 murder of journalist Ján Kuciak and his fiancée, which served as an ‘awakening point’ for the Slovak population. It was as if Slovakia acknowledged that in the 30 years since the revolution, it had evolved against many of the goals expressed in that Velvet Revolution. Anti-corruption was the driving force behind the past two elections that installed new, younger, leadership. Yet, Matovič is relatively inexperienced and will have to put in place an effective government and communicate effectively.
Demeš noted that the new government draft manifesto, representing the views of the four parties, totaled 121 pages and appeared to be a patchwork of contributions from the four coalition partners rather than an integrated whole. Yet, given its anti-corruption and open-government orientation, its strong pro-EU stance, and its emphasis on the U.S. as a strategic transatlantic partner (the first time such a reference has appeared in a government manifesto), the new government shows hopeful signs. Demeš spoke favorably about a number of appointments to the cabinet. But the new government will face challenges in establishing itself in the context of pandemic response and economic disruptions.
“In our self-absorption over contemporary assaults on our freedom — political and medical — we in the United States seem to have entirely overlooked this seminal event which continues to shape our lives today. We should never forget the core lessons from that time — the importance of allies who share our values and the sacrifices then and afterward by defenders of our democracy — and consider how they can be better applied today.” — Scott Thayer, Chairman of Friends of Slovakia
The following is a joint statement by the U. S. Secretary of State and the Foreign Ministers of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia:
Marking the 75th anniversary of the end of the Second World War in 2020, we pay tribute to the victims and to all soldiers who fought to defeat Nazi Germany and put an end to the Holocaust.
While May 1945 brought the end of the Second World War in Europe, it did not bring freedom to all of Europe. The central and eastern part of the continent remained under the rule of communist regimes for almost 50 years. The Baltic States were illegally occupied and annexed and the iron grip over the other captive nations was enforced by the Soviet Union using overwhelming military force, repression, and ideological control.
For many decades, numerous Europeans from the central and eastern part of the continent sacrificed their lives striving for freedom, as millions were deprived of their rights and fundamental freedoms, subjected to torture and forced displacement. Societies behind the Iron Curtain desperately sought a path to democracy and independence.
The events of 1956, creation and activities of the Charter 77, the Solidarity movement, the Baltic Way, the Autumn of Nations of 1989, and the collapse of the Berlin Wall were important milestones which contributed decisively to the recreation of freedom and democracy in Europe.
Today, we are working together toward a strong and free Europe, where human rights, democracy and the rule of law prevail. The future should be based on the facts of history and justice for the victims of totalitarian regimes. We are ready for dialogue with all those interested in pursuing these principles. Manipulating the historical events that led to the Second World War and to the division of Europe in the aftermath of the war constitutes a regrettable effort to falsify history.
We would like to remind all members of the international community that lasting international security, stability and peace requires genuine and continuous adherence to international law and norms, including the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states. By learning the cruel lessons of the Second World War, we call on the international community to join us in firmly rejecting the concept of spheres of influence and insisting on equality of all sovereign nations.
On January 8, 2020 the United States Senate adopted a resolution (S. RES. 343) commemorating several important anniversaries in the modern history of the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic. The resolution commemorates the 30th anniversary of the ‘Velvet Revolution’ in the former Czechoslovakia, as well as anniversaries of the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918 and the independent Slovak Republic in 1993. The measure was introduced by Senator Jeanne Shaheen (D-New Hampshire), the Ranking Member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s Subcommittee on Europe and Regional Security Cooperation, together with Subcommittee Chairman Senator Ron Johnson (R-Wisconsin).
As stated on the Slovak Embassy website (http://www.mzv.sk/web/washington-en/home) “In the resolution, the Senate commends the peoples of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic for their achievements over the past 30 years, and recognizes the contributions of the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic as members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It also reaffirms the strong historical and cultural ties between the peoples of the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, and the United States.”
The Ministry of Foreign Relations and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic also notes that “the resolution is an acknowledgement of excellent bilateral relations between the Slovak Republic and the United States that have recently experienced substantial progress in various spheres. We also view the adoption of the resolution as an important and positive impetus by the U.S. Senate to exert maximum efforts aimed at maintaining a strong transatlantic bond, which despite the current complicated development in the world politics has no alternative.”
Friends of Slovakia congratulates the Slovak Foreign Ministry and the Slovak Embassy staff in Washington DC on attaining this important recognition of Slovak and Czech achievements toward freedom and democracy and looks forward to continuing to build on the strong bonds of friendship between the people of Slovakia and the United States.
November 2019 marked the 30th Anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent events that brought freedom from communist domination to many countries of the former “Soviet-bloc.” In Czechoslovakia, public demonstrations, spearheaded by student movements, sparked the relatively peaceful downfall of the communist government and began the country’s “return to the West,” in what came to be known as the Velvet Revolution. A number of events took place in Washington D.C. in the fall to commemorate and assess the significance of the Velvet Revolution.
Since 2001, Friends of Slovakia (FOS) has co-sponsored the prestigious Annual Czech and Slovak Freedom Lecture at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. Each year, the Lecture alternates between a Czech and a Slovak speaker chosen by the co-sponsors, the Czech Embassy, the Slovak Embassy, the American Friends of the Czech Republic (AFoCR), FOS, and the Wilson Center’s Global Europe Program. This year’s Freedom Lecture on November 13 commemorated the Velvet Revolution with a special double-lecture event featuring both a Czech and a Slovak lecturer. The Czech speaker was Šimon Pánek a key leader in the 1989 student movement, who subsequently went on to found an important NGO, People in Need. The Slovak speaker was Katarína Cséfalvayová, the Chairwoman of Foreign Relations Committee of the Slovak National Council (parliament).
Ms. Cséfalvayová, who was a young child in 1989, provided a perspective as an important legislator who is in a position to look back and assess the legacy of the Velvet Revolution in the context of current challenges to democracy in Slovakia and Central and East Europe generally. Mr. Pánek then provided a first-hand perspective as a key leader in the overthrow of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia. He discussed the historical events of the period and assessed the accomplishments of the Velvet Revolution and challenges democracies have subsequently faced.
The speakers were introduced with remarks by Slovak Ambassador to the U.S., Ivan Korčok, and Czech Ambassador to the U.S., Hynek Kmoníček. After the Lecture, AFoCR President Tom Dine presented the speakers with certificates of appreciation and FOS Chairman Scott Thayer presented the speakers with the FOS Medal commemorating Milan Rastislav Štefánik and the friendship of the Czech and Slovak nations.
Those interested in a contemporary perspective on Slovakia and events in Central and Eastern Europe would do well to view Ms. Cséfalvayová‘s lecture. The Wilson Center has posted a video of the full lecture event at:
In addition, you can download the full text of Ms. Katarína Cséfalvayová’s lecture.
More 30th Anniversary Events in Washington
The week prior to the Freedom Lecture saw additional events in Washington commemorating the legacy of the Velvet Revolution. Members of the Friends of Slovakia Board of Directors attended and participated in these events.
Forum at Georgetown University
On Tuesday, November 12, a forum was held at Georgetown University, Velvet @ 30: A Legacy to Uphold. The forum was co-sponsored by the Czech and Slovak Embassies in collaboration with the Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service. The event featured welcoming remarks by Joel Hellman, Dean of the Walsh School, as well as Slovak Ambassador Korčok and Czech Ambassador Kmoníček. Then, a discussion was held between former U.S. Secretary of State Madeline Albright and former Ambassador of the Czech Republic to the U.S., Martin Palouš. They discussed their experiences of the events of 1989 and provided perspective on the significance of the events.
The first panel then discussed “How the Velvet Revolution Changed Our World.” Simon Pánek, student leader during the Velvet Revolution, Martin Bútora former Slovak Ambassador to the U.S., and co-founder of the Slovak-based civic movement Public Against Violence, and Angela Stent, Georgetown Professor of Government and Foreign Service, discussed the 1989 period and its implications. Gregory Feifer, Executive Director of the Institute of Current World Affairs in Washington moderated the discussion. The second panel , “Fight for Freedom Never Ends: Velvet Revolution’s Legacy for Today and Tomorrow,” sought to view current events in light of lessons learned and point a way forward given contemporary challenges to freedom and democracy in Central and Eastern Europe and elsewhere. The panel featured Katarína Cséfalvayová, Chairwoman of the Slovak Parliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee, Václav Bartuška, a former Velvet Revolution student leader and current Czech Ambassador for Energy Security and Jamie Fly, President of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. The panel was moderated by František Šebej, former Chairman of the Slovak Parliament Foreign Relations Committee.
A summary of the forum can be found at the Czech Embassy website here:
Roundtable Reviews Attitudes about the Velvet Revolution
The day prior, Monday, Nov 11, FOS Board members and others in the Washington foreign policy and Slovak-interest communities participated in a roundtable featuring former Slovak Ambassador Martin Bútora and his spouse, sociologist Dr. Zora Bútorová. The ambassadorial couple served in Washington from 1999-2003 and had a significant impact on Slovak- U.S. relations, as well as opening Slovakia’s new embassy building in Washington in 2001. Dr. Bútorová presented results from her recent survey research on attitudes of the Slovak and Czech populations about the Velvet Revolution and related issues. The research was conducted under the auspices of the Bratislava-based Institute for Public Affairs (IVO) a think-tank founded by the Bútoras and others. The survey results were part of a study produced by IVO, 30 years after the Velvet Revolution: Profits and Losses in the Eyes of the Public, which is available on the IVO website at:
On October 22, the Slovak Embassy in cooperation with the Elliott School of International Affairs of the George Washington University opened a panel exhibit commemorating the 30th anniversary of Velvet Revolution, We Want Freedom: An Exhibit on the Velvet Revolution of 1989. The event was held at the Elliott School in downtown Washington. The exhibit displayed a series of panels depicting the events of the Velvet Revolution with a special focus on events in Slovakia. It is hoped that students at the Elliott School as well as the GWU student community and the general public will learn about the events of 1989 in Czechoslovakia and their significance. Slovak Foreign Minister Miroslav Lajčák opened the exhibit and was joined by the Slovak Ambassador Korčok, Acting Assistant Secretary of State, Ambassador Phillip Reeker, along with representatives of the Elliott School and Slovakia’s National Memory Institute in providing remarks about the events of 1989.
It’s fair to say that the attendees of these events gained a greater understanding of the events of 30 years ago. They also came away with a deeper perspective on the importance of maintaining and renewing the legacy of freedom and democracy in Slovakia and Central and Eastern Europe generally.
On September 23, 2019 the Center for European Policy Analysis held its annual ‘CEPA Forum’ in Washington DC entitled, Transatlantic Anniversaries: Legacies and Unfinished Business. FOS, as it has for several years, served as a co-sponsor of this prestigious event, which represents the major U.S. policy forum focusing on Central and Eastern Europe. Among the speakers were František Ružička, Slovakia’s State Secretary of Foreign and European Affairs., who participated in the Forum’s first panel discussing the Unfinished Business of 1989: Empowering the Transatlantic Relationship.
Several FOS Board members attended and participated in the conference, which was held at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington. The day’s events included an evening ‘donors’ dinner’ at which Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) was honored for her support of transatlantic relations and the Central and Eastern Europe region in particular. FOS Chairman Scott Thayer and Vice Chairman Ken Bombara represented FOS at the dinner.